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1) RESEARCH INTERESTS, 2) PRIOR SCHOLARSHIP; 3) ONGOING RESEARCH STUDIES; 4) PEOPLE IN MY LAB; 5) CURRENTLY FUNDED PROJECTS; 6) SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
My overall research interests are in how environmental, social, genetic, and biological factors interact in the development of antisocial behavior. My research has been highly influenced by the Bioecological Model first developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner, who I was honored to work with for a short period following graduation from college. The Ecological Framework has not only influenced my current research on examining influences on youth problem behaviors at multiple levels, including neighborhood, school, peer, family, and individual psychosocial, biological, and genetic factors, but has also guided much of my behavioral genetic research, which seeks to understand whether the importance of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in human behaviors and traits is modifiable by different environmental exposures or by different individual characteristics. Since 2007, I have been conducting a multidisciplinary, multi-level study of a large cohort of racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse youth in the Chicago area. More recently, in 2010, I began a new program of research investigating how human-animal interaction influences biology and behavior. Finally, I have several ongoing collaborations with twin researchers both within and outside the University of Chicago, designed to better understand the interplay of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive/antisocial behavior in adults, and on cognition and aging in middle-aged male twins.
An Ecological Approach to Human Development
As part of my graduate work, I applied Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model to examine person and context moderators of the relationship between family processes and adolescent adjustment, focusing on gender, age, and maternal work status as moderators of the relationship between parental monitoring and delinquency. I found that effective parental monitoring had a greater impact on delinquency among older youth compared to younger youth among males, but that the reverse was true for females (Jacobson & Crockett, 2000). Parental monitoring also had a stronger association with youth delinquent and sexual behaviors when adolescents had mothers who were employed full- or part-time, suggesting that effective parental monitoring might compensate for a lack of direct supervision.
My interest in applying ecological models of development has continued throughout my career, and has led to new understanding of the relationships between psychological characteristics, biology, environments, and behavior across the lifespan. My lab has recently conducted the first study showing that children high on psychopathy are less responsive to both negative and positive parenting than children with low levels of psychopathic traits (Yeh, et al., forthcoming). Similarly, we have found that the relationship between social information processing and aggression in adults is moderated by exposure to child maltreatment (Chen, et al, under review) and by impulsivity (Chen, et al, forthcoming). At the biological level, we have found that cortisol dysregulation is affected more strongly by depression among adult males with higher levels of negative emotionality (Doane et al., in press).
Behavioral Genetics from an Ecological Perspective: Gene x Environment Interaction
Traditionally, behavioral genetic designs rely on studies of identical (monozygotic, MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic, DZ) twins to determine the extent to which genes and environments contribute to individual differences in behaviors or traits. Twin studies routinely calculate estimates of heritability, which are the proportions of variance in a behavior or trait that are due to genetic factors. While the importance of genetic influence on individual differences in personality, behavior, and mental and physical health is now widely accepted, from the very beginning my behavioral genetic studies have challenged the notion that heritabilities are the same for individuals in different ecological niches. For example, in my first behavioral genetic publication, I discovered that the importance of genetic factors on adolescent body mass index varied as a function of both gender and race/ethnicity (Jacobson & Rowe, 1998). Another project focused on contextual moderators and found that the heritability of aggression varied among adolescents in different schools (Rowe, Almeida, & Jacobson, 1999). Dr. Rowe and I further published the first twin study to specifically demonstrate that the heritability of cognitive ability varies systematically among individuals with different socioeconomic backgrounds (Rowe, Jacobson, & van den Oord, 1999). Among highly educated families, the heritability of adolescent verbal IQ was .76, and shared environmental effects were negligible. In contrast, among less well-educated families, shared environmental factors accounted for a significant proportion of variance (23%) in verbal IQ, and genetic factors accounted for only 26% of the variance. These results have been widely replicated in other behavioral genetic samples of children and adolescents. Indeed, the socioeconomic moderation of genetic factors on cognition is considered one of the best examples of gene X environment (gXe) interactions in twin studies.
Interestingly, follow-up work in collaboration with William Kremen at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), has not found evidence for socioeconomic moderation of genetic factors on individual differences in cognition among adult samples. In a study of word recognition in middle-aged male twins, we found that while the importance of shared environmental factors was higher among adults from less well-educated families, there was no effect of parental education on genetic influences (Kremen, Jacobson, et al., 2005). Likewise, a more recent study failed to find any evidence for moderated heritability of general cognitive ability among male twins in early adulthood (Grant, et al., 2010). The discrepancy in results among studies of children and adolescents versus studies of adults suggests the intriguing possibility that there may be a critical period of development during which early environmental experiences can alter genetic programming of cognition. On the other hand, recent work in my lab has revealed that untreated hypertension among middle-aged male twins can suppress genetic influence on cognitive ability (Vasilopoulos, et al., in press). These results indicate that both environmental and health characteristics can affect the expression of genetic influence on cognition at different points in the lifespan, which may ultimately have implications for certain types of health disparities and educational inequalities. I am currently supervising a postdoctoral trainee on a series of projects that will identify other psychosocial and behavioral characteristics in middle age that may have similar moderating effects on genetic influences on cognition, which will help us to better understand the interplay of genetic, environmental, biological, and psychosocial factors on age-related cognitive decline.
Behavioral Genetic Models of the Development and Structure of Antisocial Behavior
I have also applied multivariate behavioral genetic models to better understand the development and structure of various kinds of problem behavior. One of my postdoctoral papers was the first to report that the heritability of conduct disordered behavior has decreased over time, due primarily to an increase in the importance of shared environmental factors among twins born in more recent cohorts (Jacobson et al., 2000). Another paper showed that the importance of genetic factors on antisocial behavior varies as a function of both gender and age. Specifically, genetic influence on antisocial behavior increases from childhood to adolescence and adulthood, and the increase in heritability occurs earlier among females than males (Jacobson et al., 2002). In a paper published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, we found that common genetic factors accounted for most of the comorbidity between different types of substance use and misuse among adult male twins in the Virginia Twin Registry (Kendler, Jacobson, et al., 2003). Through collaborative work with Laura Baker at the University of Southern California (USC), we have discovered that combining reports of childhood problem behaviors from parents, children, and teachers results in higher heritabilities than analyses based on only a single reporter, supporting strong genetic influence on shared views of problem behavior (Baker, Jacobson, et al., 2007). On the other hand, a recent project by a postdoctoral trainee in my lab found that different types of aggressive behaviors in adults are underpinned by two distinct etiological factors with varying genetic and nonshared environmental influences (Yeh, et al., 2010), and a project exploring the link between irritability, aggression, and non-aggressive antisocial behavior has revealed both common and specific genetic influences (Jacobson, Noblett, et al., in review), both of which suggest important etiological distinctions between different types of antisocial behaviors
Relatedly, multivariate behavioral genetic models including both environmental and behavioral measures have shed light on processes of gene-environment correlation in the development of emotional problems, substance use, and antisocial behavior. For example, in my early work I found that the relationship between attachment to family, attachment to school, and adolescent depressed mood was explained in large part by common genetic factors (Jacobson & Rowe, 1999). Work done with colleagues at VCU has implicated a complex pattern of genetic and environmental influences on longitudinal relationships between peer group deviance and conduct disordered behavior (Kendler, Jacobson, et al., 2008) and peer group deviance and cannabis use (Gillespie et al., 2009).
Ongoing Research Studies
From Neighborhoods to Neurons and Beyond
In 2007, I received an NIH Director's New Innovator Award for my study "From Neighborhoods to Neurons and Beyond:" (NNB). The goal of this multi-phase study is to collect self-report data on environmental factors at multiple levels of influence, including neighborhood and community effects, school effects, and parent and peer effects in a large sample of 6th – 8th graders in the Chicago area, and to combine these data with psychosocial, biological, neurobiological, and genetic measures collected in my lab on a smaller subsample of youth and their families. The NNB study will help us to determine: 1) how environmental experiences, particularly stress, get "inside the skin" to affect biological and genetic processes; and 2) whether the importance of psychosocial, biological, and genetic factors varies across environmental context. This research can have significant implications for our understanding of the growing problem of youth violence in urban areas.
Phase I of the NNB study, which was completed in May 2011 through collaboration with the National Opinion Research Center (NORC), is an in-school assessment of more than 3,600 6th-8th graders across 20 schools in the Chicago area. Phase I obtained data on environmental and psychosocial factors that may account for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in youth problem behavior. One of the strengths of the NNB cohort is its remarkable racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity (see Figure 1). Schools also differ markedly on youth exposure to violence (see Figure 2). For example, while overall approximately 25% of the total NNB sample reports having heard gunshots in the past month, percentages within a given school range from ~10% to more than 70%. This offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine how neighborhood characteristics, especially high levels of neighborhood violence, moderate the effects of parental, peer, and individual influences on youth problem behavior. I have been working on a series of projects with one of the postdoctoral trainees in my lab, and thus far we have preliminary evidence suggesting that youth future orientation, parental monitoring, and peer group deviance are all more strongly related to antisocial behavior when youth are exposed to high levels of neighborhood violence, which may ultimately lead to new intervention programs. Combined with data from the ongoing Phase II (below) the NNB cohort may also begin to shed new light on the biological and genetic mechanisms by which environmental experiences can influence human behavior.
Phase II consists of an ongoing study of youth drawn from the original NNB cohort who are being brought to the University of Chicago for detailed neuroscience, biological, and behavioral assessments. Beginning in 2010, a random subsample of Phase I adolescents have been recruited to participate in an in-lab study. Importantly, 75% of the sample are sibling families (i.e., the target Phase I child, aged 12-15, and a single sibling between 10-18 years old), which will enable me to investigate both within-family and between-family influences on youth problem behavior. Moreover, Phase II collects data from multiple levels of analysis, including survey data from youth and caregivers, caregiver clinical interviews, youth performance on behavioral tasks assessing impulsivity and socioemotional information processing, and biological measures, including physiological assessments and hormonal data (e.g., oxytocin). I am also collecting and storing blood from both youth and caregivers that can be used in future genetic studies, including studies of how differences in exposure to violence may be associated with increased DNA methylation. At present we have studied more than 130 youth from 78 families, and our projected sample size by the time the Phase II NNB study is completed in 2012 will be 350 adolescents from 200 families. In summer 2011, I will begin Phase III of the NNB study, which is a within-family sibling study using fMRI to examine how individual differences in neural underpinnings of empathy and impulsivity may be related to youth problem and prosocial behaviors.
The NNB study has the potential to have considerable impact on our understanding of the importance of different levels of influence on the development of youth problem behavior. Therefore, I am highly motivated to continue to follow up the NNB cohort longitudinally. Currently I have an R01 application under review at NIH that would enable new data collection from this cohort between ages 14-18 (R01 NR013383, K. Jacobson, MPI). This application is exciting for at least two reasons. First, in addition to providing key information from multiple levels on the development of youth problem behavior across adolescence in a unique, high-risk sample, the proposed research would use social neuroscience and neuroeconomics paradigms to investigate how adolescent decision making and its neurobiological underpinnings are related to problem behavior and also to HIV/AIDs risk-avoidant behaviors. Understanding how to increase risk-avoidant behaviors has critical public health significance, especially for minority and economically disadvantaged youth who are at high risk for developing HIV/AIDs. Second, the proposed research is highly interdisciplinary, involving collaborations with researchers in multiple departments at the University of Chicago, including psychiatry, psychology, economics, reproductive health, health studies, and social work. Successful funding of this project would therefore enable not only the continuation of the NNB cohort, but would also help me to achieve my long-term goal of establishing an interdisciplinary program of research at the University of Chicago encompassing both biological and social sciences that is devoted to understanding the causes and consequences of a broad array of youth health and behavioral outcomes, which could lead to novel prevention and intervention programs for at-risk youth.
They Call it Puppy Love: Epidemiology and Biology of the Child-Dog Bond
In 2010, I began a new program of research in human-animal interaction (HAI) designed to determine whether attachment and attitudes towards pets have benefits for psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral problems. As detailed in a recent review paper (Hoffman & Jacobson, under review), there is growing evidence that HAI has the potential to positively influence child and adult emotional and behavioral outcomes through mechanisms related to attachment and stress reduction. However, existing research suffers from suffers from a scarcity of carefully designed studies with appropriate control groups that can better uncover the mechanisms through which interactions with pets can influence human behavior and well-being. Consistent with my interests in using behavioral genetic designs to better understand causal pathways, I recently conducted the first twin study of HAI and found that frequency of play with pets in adult males had a heritability of .37 (Jacobson, Hoffman, et al., under review). Moreover, I have been incorporating measures of attitudes towards pets and child-dog interaction into the NNB study, and we have evidence demonstrating that youth with more positive attitudes towards pets show higher levels of empathy and prosocial behavior, and lower levels of depression, psychopathy, and antisocial behavior. In collaboration with Dr. Royce Lee at the CNPRU and Dr. Sue Carter at the University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC) we are also collecting baseline measures of oxytocin in blood from NNB youth, and will be examining whether levels of oxytocin are related to different indices of stress, attachment, and prosocial behavior.
Over the next 18 months I will be conducting a series of pilot studies examining: a) whether emotional attachment to animals increases oxytocin levels and decreases cortisol in response to stress in children aged 9-12, and b) the underlying neurobiology of the child-dog bond using fMRI. In the NNB study, in collaboration with Dr. Jean Decety in Psychology, I am designing a separate fMRI experiment that would be the first to specifically compare the neurobiological architecture of empathy towards humans with empathy towards animals. One of my current postdoctoral trainees is also exploring the impact of canine characteristics on human behavior and traits, and we have exciting preliminary results showing that dogs resemble their owners on a host of psychological and personality characteristics, including aggression, anxiety, and excitability. I have a grant application currently in review at NICHD (R03 HD070679, K. Jacobson, PI) for a pilot study that would explore, using an experimental paradigm, whether interacting with a friendly, unfamiliar dog alters biological processes (e.g., oxytocin, cortisol, heart rate variability) and induces changes in laboratory measures of prosocial behavior in a sample of young adults. Ultimately, I hope that this new area of research on HAI could lead to collaborations with other researchers interested in the positive benefits of HAI for a wide variety of behaviors and disease across the lifespan.
Ongoing Collaborative Twin Projects
Along with Dr. Emil Coccaro, Director of the CNPRU, I am currently overseeing the University of Chicago Twins Program. Recently we have completed a study of aggression that collected self-report data from more than 3,000 individual twins from the PennTwins Cohort, and also obtained clinical and lab-based data from a subsample of 200 twin pairs. We are now collecting functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data on aggression, also based on the PennTwins Cohort. In addition, for more than 10 years I have collaborated with investigators at UCSD and Boston University on the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) project, a longitudinal twin study of cognition, health, and aging in middle adulthood using twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. This research has revealed important insights about the underlying genetic and environmental architecture of cognition in middle-age, and ongoing work led by one of the postdoctoral trainees in my lab seeks to identify environmental, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics that may modify the effects of genes on cognitive aging.
People In My Lab
Crystal Johnson, MS, Project Manager for NNB, 2010-present
Terrie Vasilopoulos, PhD in Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, 2009. Postdoctoral Scholar, 2009-present
Pan Chen, PhD in Human Development & Family Studies, Auburn University, 2009. Postdoctoral Scholar, 2009-present
Christy L. Hoffman, PhD in Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, 2010. Postdoctoral Scholar, 2010-present
Elena Tuskenis, MD, PGY4 Psychiatry Resident, 2011-present
Former Lab Members:
Leah Doane, PhD in Human Development and Social Policy, Northwestern University, 2008. Former Postdoctoral Scholar, 2008-2009. Currently Assistant Professor of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ
Michelle Yeh, Phd in Psychology, University of Southern California, 2007. Former Postdoctoral Scholar, 2007-2009. Currently Associate Consultant, McKinsey & Company, Chicago, IL
Jing (Sam) Pan, MA in Psychology, University of Chicago, 2006. Former Senior Research Assistant, 2006-2008. Currently working on PhD in Psychology at the University of Indiana, Bloomington, IN
Positions In My Lab
If you are interested in working in my lab as a Research Assistant, graduate student, or PostDoctoral Scholar, please contact me by e-mail to find out if there are any current openings. email@example.com
Currently Funded Research Projects
From Neighborhoods to Neurons and Beyond
NIH 1 DP2 OD003021
Principal Investigator, 2007-2012
The purpose of this NIH Director's New Innovator Award is to conduct a multi-phase, multi-level, multidisciplinary study of the role of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychosocial influences on the development of problem behavior in adolescents. The three-phase study involves assessments of behavior and psychosocial risk and protective factors in approximately 7,000 adolescents in Chicago, a behavioral genetic study using 400 sibling pairs, and a nueroimaging study of 100 sibling pairs. Pilot data will test the feasibility of conducting DNA methylation analyses using blood to determine the extent to different environmental experiences and/or behavioral differences correlate with differences in gene expression.
They Call it Puppy Love: Epidemiology and Biology of the Child-Dog Bond
NIH/NICHD 1 R03 HD066598
Principal Investigator, 2010-2012
There is growing evidence that pet ownership and human-animal attachment and interaction may be beneficial for children with autism and other disabilities. However, whether human-animal attachment and interaction through pet ownership confers similar protective effects among a community sample of children at-risk for other behavioral and emotional disorders is unknown. This study will address this question by linking new measures of child-dog attachment to existing behavioral measures from a large community sample of adolescents, and will also help us to better understand neurobiological pathways that underlie individual differences in the child-dog bond that may further serve as protective influences for child development.
Understanding the Pathways to Aggression
NIH/NIMH 1 R01 MH080109
Co-Investigator (E. Coccaro, PI), 2008-2013
The purpose of this study is to collect self-report and lab-based measures of aggression, impulsivity, and social-emotional information processing, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a sample of 200 twin pairs from the PennTwins Cohort to identify biological endophenotypes for aggression and to better understand the neurobiology of the relationships between impulsivity and social-emotional informational processing with aggression.
VETSA 2: A Longitudinal Twin Study of Cognition and Aging
NIH/NIA 5 R01 AG018386
Principal Investigator of data analysis subcontract (W. Kremen, PI), 2008-2013
The purpose of this subcontract with UCSD is to provide consulting and data analysis for a large-scale grant investigating genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between health and aging in a sample of middle-aged male-male twin pairs form the Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry. The purpose of the University of Chicago subcontract is to provide statistical consulting and analysis, supervise a full time postdoctoral student, and to assist in manuscript preparation.
*Chen, P., Coccaro, E.F., Lee, R., & Jacobson, K.C. (under review).
Moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on relationships between social information processing and adult aggression.
*Hoffman, C. & Jacobson, K.C. (under review).
Benefits of human-animal interaction: A growing area of research in psychology.
Perspectives on Psychological Science.
Jacobson, K.C., *Hoffman, C.L., *Vasilopoulos, T., Lyons, M.J., Kremen, W.S., & Franz, C.E. (under review).
Genetic and environmental influences on frequency of play with pets among middle-aged men: A Behavioral Genetic analysis.
Jacobson, K.C., Noblett, K.L., Bergeman, C.S., Coccaro, E.F. (under review).
Genetic and environmental overlap on trait irritability and aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior: Results from adult male twins.
*Chen, P., Coccaro, E.F., & Jacobson, K.C. (forthcoming).
Main and interactive effects of impulsivity and socioemotional information processing on individual differences in aggression. Accepted for publication in
*Yeh, M.T., *Chen, Baker, L.A., Raine, A., & Jacobson, K.C. (forthcoming).
Child psychopathic traits moderate the relationship between parent-to-child affect and child problem behaviors. Accepted for publication in
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
*Doane, L.D., Franz, C.E., Prom-Wormley, E., Eaves, L., Mendoza, S., Hellhammer, D.H., Lupien, S., Xian, H., Lyons, M., Kremen, W.S., & Jacobson, K.C. (in press).
Negative emotionality, depressive symptoms, and cortisol diurnal rhythms: Analysis of a community sample of middle-aged males.
Hormones and Behavior. E-pub available May 18, 2011.
*Vasilopoulus, T., Kremen, W.S., Kim, K., Panizzon, M.S., Stein, P.K., Xian, H., Grant, M.D., Lyons, M.J., Toomey, R., Eaves, L.J., Franz, C.E., Jacobson, K.C. (in press).
Untreated hypertension decreases heritability of cognition in late middle age.
Behavior Genetics, E-pub available June 19, 2011.
Bookman, E.B., McAllister, K., Gillanders, E., Wanke, K., Balshaw, D., Rutter, J., Reedy, J., Shaughnessy, D., Agurs-Collins, T., Paltoo, D., Atienza, A., Bierut, L., Kraft, P., Fallin, M.D., Perera, F., Turkheimer, E., Boardman, J., Marazita, M.L., Rappaport, S.M., Boerwinkle, E., Suomi, S.J., Caporaso, N.E., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Jacobson, K.C., Lowe, W.L., Goldman, L.R., Duggal, P., Gunnar, M.R., Manolio, T.A., Green, E.D., Olster, D., & Birnbaum, L.S. (2011).
Gene-Environment Interplay in Common Complex Diseases: Forging an Integrative Model. Recommendations from an NIH Workshop.
Genetic Epidemiology, 35,
*Doane, L.D., Kremen, W.S., Eaves, L.J., Eisen, S.A., Hauger, R., Hellhammer, D., Levine, S., Lupien, S., Lyons, M.J., Mendoza, S., Prom-Wormley, E., Xian, H., York, T., Franz, C.E., & Jacobson, K.C. (2010).
Associations between jet lag and basal cortisol rhythms the day after short distance travel.
Health Psychology, 29,
Grant, M.D., Kremen, W.S., Jacobson, K.C., Franz, C., Xian, H., Eisen, S.A., Toomey, R., & Lyons, M.J. (2010).
Does parental education have a moderating effect on the genetic and environmental influences of general cognitive ability in early adulthood?
Behavior Genetics, 40,
*Tuvblad, C., Isen, J., Baker, L.A., Raine, A., Lozano, D., & Jacobson, K.C. (2010).
The genetic and environmental etiology of sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal in children.
Behavior Genetics, 40,
*Yeh, M.T., Coccaro, E.F., & Jacobson, K.C. (2010).
Multivariate behavioral genetic analysis of aggressive behavior subtypes.
Behavior Genetics, 40,
Gillespie, N.A., Neale, M.C., Jacobson, K.C., & Kendler, K.S. (2009).
Modeling the genetic and environmental association between peer group deviance and cannabis use in male twins.
Addiction, 104, 420-429. [PDF]
Jacobson, K.C., Beseler, C.L., Su, J., Faraone, S.V., Glatt, S.J., Kremen, W.S., Lyons, M.J., & Tsuang, M.T. (2008). Ordered subsets linkage analysis of antisocial behavior in substance use disorder among participants in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 147B, 1258-1269. [PDF]
K.S., Jacobson, K.C., Myers, J.M.,
& Eaves, L.J. (2008). A genetically informative developmental study of the relationship
between conduct disorder and peer deviance in males. Psychological Medicine, 7, 1001-1011.
Baker, L.A., Jacobson, K.C., Raine, A., Lozano, D.I., & Bezdjian, S.J.
(2007). Genetic and environmental
bases of childhood antisocial behavior: A multi-trait multi-method twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116,
N.G., Kendler, K.S., Prescott, C.A., Aggen, S.H., Gardner, C.O., Jacobson, K.C., & Neale, M.C. (2007). Longitudinal modeling of genetic and environmental
influences on self-reported availability of psychoactive substances: alcohol,
cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine and stimulants. Psychological Medicine, 37, 947-959.
K.S., Jacobson, K.C., Gardner, C.O., Gillespie, N.G., Aggen, S.A., & Prescott, C.A.
a social world: A developmental twin study of peer group deviance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64,
Jacobson, K.C., Lyons,
M.J., Xian, H., Eisen, S.A., Eaves, L.J., & Tsuang,
M.T. (2007). Genetics of verbal
working memory processes: A twin study of middle-aged men. Neuropsychology, 21, 561-580.
E.F., & Jacobson, K.C. (2006). PennTwins: A population
based cohort for twin studies. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 998-1005.
Neale, M.C., Jacobson, K.C., & Roysamb,
E. (2006). Multivariate genetic analysis of sex-limitation in human populations. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 481-489.
Jacobson, K.C. (2005). The genetic basis of substance use and abuse. In R. Stohler & W. Rossler (Eds.) Bibliotheca Psychiatrica,
Vol. No. 171, Special Issue: Dual Diagnosis (pp.15-30). Basel, Switzerland:
Jacobson, K.C. (2005). Genetic influence on the development of antisocial behavior.
In K. Kendler & L. Eaves (Eds) New Directions for Psychiatric Genetics (pp.
197-232). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press,
Jacobson, K.C., Xian, H., Eisen, S.A.,
Waterman, B., Toomey, R., Neale, M.C., Tsuang, M.T., & Lyons, M.J. (2005). Heritability of Word Recognition in Middle-Aged Men
Varies as a Function of Parental Education. Behavior
Genetics, 35, 417-433.
Khan, A.A., Jacobson, K.C., Gardner, C.O., Prescott, C.A.,
& Kendler, K.S. (2005). Personality and comorbidity of common
psychiatric disorders. British
Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 190-196.
Kremen, W.S., Xian, H., Jacobson, K.C.,
Waterman, B., Eisen, S.A.,
Tsuang, M.T., & Lyons,
M.J. (2004). Stability,
consistency, and heritability of electrodermal
response lability in middle-aged Male Twins. Psychophysiology, 51, 501-509.
K.S., Jacobson, K.C., Prescott, C.A.,
& Neale, M.C. (2003). The specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors in men
for the illicit use and abuse/dependence of cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens,
sedatives, stimulants, and opiates. American
Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4), 687-695.
Jacobson, K.C., Prescott, C.A., & Kendler, K.S. (2002). Sex differences in genetic and
environmental influences on antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood.
Development and Psychopathology, 14,
Jacobson, K.C., & Crockett, L.J. (2000). Parental monitoring and
adolescent adjustment: An ecological approach. Journal of Research on
Adolescence, 10, 65-97.
Jacobson, K.C., Prescott, C.A., & Kendler, K.S. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on juvenile
antisocial behaviour assessed on two occasions. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1315-1325.
Jacobson, K.C., Prescott, C.A., Neale, M. C., & Kendler,
K.S. (2000). Cohort differences
in genetic and environmental influences on retrospective reports of conduct
disorder among adult male twins. Psychological
Medicine, 30, 775-787.
Jacobson, K.C., & Rowe, D.C. (1999). Genetic and
environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness,
school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: Sex differences. Developmental
Psychology, 35, 926-939.
Rowe, D.C., Almeida, D.M., & Jacobson, K.C. (1999). School context and genetic
influences on aggression in adolescence. Psychological Science, 10, 277-280.
Rowe, D.C., Jacobson, K.C., & Van den Oord, E. J. C. G. (1999). Genetic and
environmental influences on vocabulary IQ: Parental education as
moderator. Child Development, 70, 1151-1162.
Barber, B. L., Jacobson, K.C., Miller, K., & Petersen, A. C. (1998). Ups and downs: Daily cycles of adolescent moods. In A.C. Crouter & R. Larson (Eds.)
New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 82 (Winter). Temporal rhythms in adolescence: Clocks,
calendars, and the coordination of daily life (pp. 23-36). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Jacobson, K.C., & Rowe, D.C.(1998). Genetic and
shared environmental influences on adolescent body mass index: Interactions
with race and sex. Behavior Genetics, 28, 265-278.